Transactions on Maritime Science <p>Transactions on Maritime Science (ToMS) is a scientific journal with international peer review. The journal is published in English as an open access journal, and as a classic paper journal (in limited edition). ToMS aims to present best maritime research from South East Europe, particularly the Mediterranean area.</p> University of Split, Faculty of Maritime Studies en-US Transactions on Maritime Science 1848-3305 Impressum Editorial Board ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-20 2019-04-20 8 1 From Editor-in-Chief Ivica Kuzmanić ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-20 2019-04-20 8 1 The Effects of Oil Price Shocks and Economic Fluctuations of Trading Partners on Iran's Ports Throughput <p>This study aims to estimate the effects of oil price shocks on seaborne trade in Iran; in particular, port throughput of three leading ports through economic fluctuations of three major trading partners of Iran, based on quarterly data for the period of 1999Q2 to 2018Q1. We apply a standard vector autoregressive (VAR) approach using Cholesky decomposition. The results indicate that with increasing oil revenues in short-run, seaborne trade be further directed towards Shahid Rajaei port while rising oil revenues changes the combination of goods handled in Emam Khomeini and Bushehr ports. In the long run, the share of oil price fluctuations in explaining the variations of Shahid Rajaei port throughput is higher than the other two. In fact, increases in oil revenues cause an increase in the volume of industrial and containerized seaborne cargo trade.</p> Mehdi Mirzaei Hojat Parsa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-20 2019-04-20 8 1 5 17 10.7225/toms.v08.n01.001 Control of Unmanned Underwater Vehicle as a Member of Vehicles Team Performing a Given Task <p>The article presents the control system of a single underwater vehicle which is a member of the underwater vehicles team. The application of the multi-agent system concept for modelling and controlling a team of homogeneous underwater vehicles is discussed. Issues relating to cooperation actions in the team of underwater vehicles are described and solved using the theory of games and vector quality index. The process of negotiations between the vehicles is modelled as a multiplayer cooperative game. Finally, the water region search tasks performed by a team of cooperating underwater vehicles are presented and discussed taking into account possible vehicle failures happening during task realization.</p> Andrzej Zak ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-20 2019-04-20 8 1 18 25 10.7225/toms.v08.n01.002 Diffusion of Innovation Assessment of Adoption of the Dry Port Concept <p>Dry ports, when implemented effectively, reduce seaport congestion, improve seaport throughput and, due to the movement of containers from road to rail, reduce harmful emissions. This study investigates the implementation of dry ports at five U.S. seaports, which is then analysed considering the diffusion of innovation attributes. Data for the study was collected through face-to-face interviews at US East Coast seaports of Miami, Everglades, Jacksonville, Savannah and Charleston. To ensure validity, the triangulation of data sources was performed; i.e. a number of secondary sources were used, such as reports, internal and external documents, as well as site visits to the facilities. Three components have been recognized as key to the successful dry port concept: on/near-dock rail, reliable inland rail connection and a functional inland intermodal facility. These three components have a diverse group of stakeholders, many of whom are unknown to one another; however, when coordinated, they create the innovation of the dry port concept. If the attributes of successful innovations are understood, with respect to their influence specifically on dry ports, then they can be managed to contribute to the successful implementation of dry ports. The novelty of the research lies in its approach of using the diffusion of innovation attributes that have been historically proven to impact the adoption rates of innovations to provide insight into the adoption of the dry port concept.</p> Violeta Roso Dawn Russell Dawna Rhoades ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-20 2019-04-20 8 1 26 36 10.7225/toms.v08.n01.003 Waiting for Breakthrough in Conventional Submarine’s Prime Movers <p>Submarines, as a very expensive and sophisticated type of weaponry, are being intensively exploited by the armed forces of many countries. This means that submarines are sent ever longer patrols, sometimes to distant regions. To meet such requirements, submarine sub-systems and components must have high reliability and operational readiness indicators. Among the many machines and devices found on submarines, the ones that generate, store, and consume energy (mainly electricity) deserve special attention. The largest energy consumers on the submarine are the components of its propulsion system. One of the most complicated and loaded devices on board submarine is a power generator with a diesel engine driving it, on whose continuous and reliable work the safe performance of tasks depends. According to statistical research, despite its importance for the process of performing tasks by submarines, diesel engines are still the least reliable devices on submarines. Despite the constant technological development of piston engines, their work in very difficult conditions under heavy load and at high counter-pressure at the exhaust outlet promotes their malfunction and damage. From this point of view, the development of charge air systems for submarine diesel engines based on the construction experience of MTU Company is described in the paper. The classification of submarines, their propulsion systems, and the working conditions of engines on submarines are presented in the paper. Air-Independent Propulsion (AIP) systems with their applications on chosen submarines are also described. The most significant change in submarine propulsion system observed in 2018, transition from lead-acid to lithium-ion batteries, is also presented.</p> Tomasz Lus ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-20 2019-04-20 8 1 37 45 10.7225/toms.v08.n01.004 Concept and First Results of Optical Navigational System <p>The paper presents a concept of the optical coastal navigational system. The task of the system is to provide information about object position in coastal areas based on optical information. The system is intended for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles that operate in GPS denied environments. In addition to the concept itself, the paper also outlines the first results achieved during the research on the system.</p> Tomasz Praczyk Stanisław Hożyń Tadeusz Bodnar Leszek Pietrukaniec Marek Błaszczyk Michał Zabłotny ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-20 2019-04-20 8 1 46 53 10.7225/toms.v08.n01.005 Preliminary Calculations for Minehunter's Genset Foundations <p>The requirements for the foundations of naval vessel engines are based on classification rules devised by classification societies or/and military standardization rules. A class guideline was published, defining the requirements, acceptance criteria and machinery seating methods. There is also a schedule of basic calculation procedures for cast resin or rubber chocks which facilitates the process of machinery foundation design, preloading force calculation, the establishment of boundary conditions etc. In case of naval vessels, typical procedures do not meet tactical requirements due to potential explosion loads. Since minehunters are mainly deployed at sea, handling active, naval mines, the shock resistance calculation for the entire machinery, including the Genset, is required. The paper presents preliminary MatLab calculation methods which can be used to analyse the type, number and location of rubber or elastomer chocks. The procedure consists of input data such as UNDEX pressure and technical data of the Genset used in the Polish Navy. Calculation results include the analysis of the dynamic interaction between the Genset and the foundation, as well as the damping effect generated by the UNDEX (<strong>UND</strong>erwater <strong>EX</strong>plosion) shock pulse.</p> Andrzej Grządziela Marcin Kluczyk ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-20 2019-04-20 8 1 54 61 10.7225/toms.v08.n01.006 Seafarer Market – Challenges for the Future <p>In the today’s seafarer market one of the key problems is the lack of seafarers, especially experienced officers. Although the global supply of officers is increasing steadily, the demand is still above supply. An additional problem is that an increased demand may lead to a decreased quality of education. Ships and shipping technology in general have become more advanced and require well educated and trained personnel. In addition, over the next several decades it is expected that partial or fully autonomous vessels will be in commercial use, and this will require significant changes in the education and training of crew members. So, regarding the education of seafarers, the main future challenges include the ways of ensuring sufficient supply of seafarers, especially well-trained officers, and adapting the education systems for the upcoming introduction of autonomous ships. This paper analyzes the present situation of the seafarers and shipping market, and provides forecast for the near future. Also, the main challenges in education and training of seafarers will refer to observing the recommendations for improvement and adaptation to future demands.</p> Zvonimir Lušić Mario Bakota Mirko Čorić Ivica Skoko ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-20 2019-04-20 8 1 62 74 10.7225/toms.v08.n01.007 Friction Stir Welding for Marine Applications: Mechanical Behaviour and Microstructural Characteristics of Al-Mg-Si-Cu Plates <p>Friction stir welding is a multipurpose solid-state joining process mainly used for aluminium and steel plates and frames. Friction stir welded non-ferrous metallic alloys, similar or dissimilar, in particular aluminium alloys, provide opportunities for the improvement and developement of new product designs. This paper investigates the correlation between the mechanical behaviour and morphological structures of friction stir welded Al-Mg-Si(Cu) alloy plates in two temper conditions. Micro Vickers hardness and tensile tests were carried out. Additionally, morphology was investigated using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Samples subjected to the post weld heat treatment were shown to have the best properties owing to the formation of a significant number of hardening particles which, added to the nugget grain refinement, resulted in the increase of the material strength.</p> Liane Roldo Nenad Vulić ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-20 2019-04-20 8 1 75 83 10.7225/toms.v08.n01.008 Maritime and Other Key Transport Issues for the Future – Education and Training in the Context of Lifelong Learning <p>The entire transport system will transform into an integrated transport system in response to future trends and demands. The EU Skilful project defines the impact on job profiles across all transport modes and at all levels of work and duties. Changing and emerging job profiles require training which on the one hand makes use of the latest training and education methods, while on the other meeting the need for the acquisition of special competencies, skills and abilities. The demand for individualization of training contents will soar in the interlinked global world and integrated transport systems.</p> <p>An additional questionnaire was conducted in the spring of 2018, in the assessment of the maritime and transport sectors. The answers of course lecturers and organisers concerning present and future needs and lifelong learning issues were instructive, with most of the people having concrete ideas about lifelong learning.</p> <p>Courses will therefore include future oriented contents, a practicable registration procedure with information for qualified trainers capable of tailoring course contents to the specific focus of the course and participants’ requirements, giving excellent lectures with relevant learning material and real usable factors, clear structure, practical parts, remarks of concrete relevance, communication parts for improving soft skills, experience exchange and learning from other participants, intercultural aspects for globalization, reconciling mixed group needs and requirements and learning to learn methods, using different adult suitable methods and finally focusing on emotions to capitalize on the motivation to learn.</p> <p>Lifelong learning is a key issue for successful employers and employees.</p> Jeannette Edler Virginia Infante ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-20 2019-04-20 8 1 84 98 10.7225/toms.v08.n01.009 Satellite Derived Bathymetry Survey Method - Example of Hramina Bay <p>Satellite Derived Bathymetry (SDB) method uses satellite or other remote multispectral imagery for depth determination in very shallow coastal areas with clear waters. Commonly, SDB survey method can be used when planning hydrographic surveying of marine areas not surveyed or areas with old bathymetric data. This method has become widely used in the past few years. SDB is a survey method founded on analytical modelling of light penetration through the water column in visible and infrared bands. In this article, SDB method was applied by using free-of-charge Landsat 8 and Sentinel 2 satellite images to get the bathymetric data in the area of Hramina Bay in the Central Adriatic. SDB processing procedures and algorithms were described. Processed satellite data was uploaded on geodetic software and ENC S-57 format. The bathymetric map of Hramina Bay obtained by the SDB method was compared with the approach usage band Electronic Nautical Chart (ENC) HR400512 with satisfying positional and vertical accuracy.</p> Tea Duplančić Leder Nenad Leder Josip Peroš ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-20 2019-04-20 8 1 99 108 10.7225/toms.v08.n01.010 Marina Operator Liability Insurance in Croatian and Slovenian Law and Practice <p>The paper deals with marina operator liability insurance (hereinafter: MOLI) in the context of Croatian and Slovenian insurance law and business practice. The authors analyse, discuss and compare the salient features of MOLI contracts, their standard terms and conditions, scope of coverage and exclusions in Croatian and Slovenian law. The paper describes the relevant business practice in the two Adriatic countries. The analysis is based on the comparative study of the relevant national legislation and private regulation, as well as on the data and documentation gathered by field research, consisting of written questionnaires and live interviews with the representatives of insurance companies and marina operators. Our thesis is that the legal framework in the two observed jurisdictions, as well as the insurers’ private regulation in Croatia and Slovenia are very similar. The aim is to establish the common features of MOLI contracts and of the related practices of marina operators and their insurers in the respective countries and explain the background that has led to the formation of a MOLI product specific for the eastern Adriatic marina industry. Suggestions are given for the improvement of the relevant business practices and administrative requirements regarding the minimum insurance standards imposed on marina operators by the concessioning process.</p> Adriana Vincenca Padovan Margita Selan Voglar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-20 2019-04-20 8 1 109 122 10.7225/toms.v08.n01.011 Can Marina Qualify as a Place of Refuge? <p>This paper deals with marinas as potential places of refuge. A place of refuge is a port, a part of a port, a sheltered wharf or anchorage, or another sheltered area where temporary accommodation of vessels and marine facilities is possible in order to render assistance or avoid potential threats to humans, ships and the environment. Marinas, as the most important type of nautical port, are suitable for smaller vessels. In countries like the Republic of Croatia, where the development of nautical tourism is of great importance, the obligation of marinas to provide assistance or grant access to ships in distress needs to be established. Thereby, it is essential to take into account all marina characteristics and compare them with those of other types of ports. In Croatian legislation, places of refuge are regulated by the Ordinance on Places of Refuge compliant with IMO Guidelines A.949 (23) and A.950 (23) and European Directives (2002/59 / EC). The paper analyses the suitability of the marinas as places of refuge for vessels, primarily vessels for nautical tourism.</p> Ranka Petrinović Nikola Mandić ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-20 2019-04-20 8 1 123 131 10.7225/toms.v08.n01.012 Maritime Cyber Security Analysis – How to Reduce Threats? <p>Maritime cyber security management requires a holistic approach as there is an increase in complexity, digitalization, and automation of systems in maritime industry. Numerous interconnected systems between ship and shore, which are in need of a special focus in the internet environment, are increasing on daily basis. Nowadays one of the major concerns in maritime computing is vulnerability to cyber-attacks. In maritime industry, cyber incidents can lead to loss of life, loss of control over ships or sensitive data, as well as ship and/or cargo hijacking. This paper therefore covers key problems of maritime industry from cyber security perspective and proposes solutions on how to eliminate or minimize them.</p> Ivan Mraković Ranko Vojinović ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-20 2019-04-20 8 1 132 139 10.7225/toms.v08.n01.013 E MORTE KAPITÔN Ive Kora Mirna Čudić Žgela ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-20 2019-04-20 8 1 142 143 MÒDRI GRÊB Ive Kora Mirna Čudić Žgela ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-20 2019-04-20 8 1 144 145 About ToMS: Ethics, Conflict of Interest, License and Guides for Authors Editorial Board ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-20 2019-04-20 8 1 146 152